13 comments on “An Overview of the Volcanism and Tectonics of Italy

      • I didn’t, though there are multiple reports from Homer, Palmer and Skagway of thunder around 4 AM. Interestingly enough, no reports that I know of as yet from Hawaii, which is a lot closer than we are – something about atmospheric acoustic bounce. You see similar things with shortwave radio signal bounce. Shock wave did show up on local recording barometers. Largest tsunami was in King Cove in the Aleutians at around 1 M above normal. Most of the rest of the state was half a meter or less.

        Interesting discussion in Must Read Alaska this morning. Comments are pretty good also. Cheers –



  1. Pretty good video by a Brit living in California named Scott Manley on the eruption. Takes a look at the satellite imagery and also a couple live plots of the pressure wave crossing Japan and the US taken from their recording barometers. Internet is down on Tonga so not a lot of new local info out. There was a second smaller eruption over the weekend. An 8+ minute video posted in PowerLine blog. Cheers –


  2. Interesting article by Shane Cronin in The Conversation on history of the Hunga Ha’apai Hunga Tonga eruption. Cronin is a Professor of Earth Sciences at Auckland University. The volcanic system appears to have two types of eruptions, smaller ones and really big ones. The big ones like last week seem to occur about every thousand years. Interesting article. Cheers –



  3. Piece out of Space.com on the eruption. Good news and bad news. Satellite observations found ash 39 km into the atmosphere, highest ever measured (bad news). Good news is that the eruption didn’t produce very much SO2, early estimates around 2% that of Pinatubo. Injection of massive amounts of SO2 aerosols into the upper atmosphere correlate (by some) with global cooling. The proposed mechanism is reflection of incoming sunlight until the aerosols are removed. Piece also has a great active gif of shock wave moving across the Pacific basin. Cheers –



  4. Yet more fallout from the Hunga Tonga eruption. This time around, an explanation of why tsunamis arrived earlier than predicted. There is a disconnect between volcanically created tsunamis and earthquake produced ones. The volcanic ones travel faster. Best analogue is Krakatau 1883. Don’t think I understand it all that well as yet, but find it fascinating. Cheers –



  5. Hi guys! LTNS! yes, that Hunga Tonga blast was a shocker. But in retrospect, how many eruptions in the holocene appear to exhibit the same eruption type? Off the top of my head I can think of Santorini (massive tsunami), Hatepe (massive sudden blast to 55 km altitude through a lake), Krakatoa, Hunga Tonga, possibly Macauley as well, and no doubt several others… seems to be a lot more common than we might have feared.


    • Darn it, Bruce, now you’ve given me more work to do (Hatepe & Macauley). Didn’t know about those. Should be fun to look into.

      Upon further review, Macauley comes up nicely via Goolag search, Hatepe is nowhere to be found. Ometape, perhaps?

      Still trying how to figure out how to get that large of a detonation without a lot of new magma being involved. Should be a fun investigation.

      Hope all is well with you and yours in your part of the world. Always nice to hear from you. Cheers –


      • Hi Alex, been kind of busy lately, what with a toddler to look after and my wife studying full time and me trying to hold a business down during corona.. never a dull moment! You certainly know Hatepe.. that was the most recent eruption at Taupo. Feel free to draw on my VC articles on it if you wish. Surprisingly they seem to have stood the test of time!!


      • and, right on cue… a new paper on Havre…

        so on the Tonga Kermadec arc alone we have Hunga Tonga and Havre doing things previously thought unlikely or even downright impossible. Add to that the calderas of Raoul and Macauley, there’s a case to be made for explosive vulcanism along the entire arc as it evolves (although the bulk of it is mafic and effusive – but the explosive eruptions are real beasts.)



  6. Pingback: Are Exceptionally Violent Volcanic Eruptions More Common Than We Think?  Part 1 of 2 |

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