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Volcanoes as heat engines

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Smoke and ash rise from the Calbuco volcano, seen from Puerto Varas city, south of Santiago, April 22, 2015. Volcano Calbuco in southern Chile erupted for the first time in more than five decades on Wednesday, sending a thick plume of ash and smoke several kilometres into the sky. REUTERS/Carlos Gutierrez

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Beauty or Beast? GUNUNG GALUNGGUNG, Indonesia

The crater of Galunggung volcano steams on February 5, 1983, a month after the end of the 1982-83 eruption. Vigorous steam clouds issue from a late-stage cinder cone formed in the center of the crater and from the margins of the interior crater wall. A lake that had begun forming in the crater at the time of this photo eventually grew to entirely cover the cinder cone. (© Don Peterson, 1983, USGS)

The crater of Galunggung volcano steams on February 5, 1983, a month after the end of the 1982-83 eruption. Vigorous steam clouds issue from a late-stage cinder cone formed in the center of the crater and from the margins of the interior crater wall. A lake that had begun forming in the crater at the time of this photo eventually grew to entirely cover the cinder cone. (© Don Peterson, 1983, USGS)

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